Banking accounts, credit cards, student loans, mortgages, personal loans—each uses compound interest. To manage your personal finances successfully, it helps to have a basic understanding of compound interest and how it can work to grow your money.
So, how does compound interest work? It turns out it’s not that complicated―and you can use it to your advantage to make the most of the money you’ve got.
Let’s start with some important terms: The amount of money you put into an interest-bearing account or investment is called “principal.” So, if you deposit $1,000 of your own money into a savings account, that $1,000 is your principal amount. Any money you earn on top of that $1,000 is what’s known as “interest.”
Now, to understand compound interest, it helps to understand something called “simple interest.” Simple interest is interest earned only on your principal. So, if you earn simple interest on $1,000 at an annual interest rate of 5% per year, you’ll receive 5% interest (that’s $50 of extra money) every single year. However, compound interest works differently.
Compound interest accrues not just on the original investment (the principal), but on the full balance of your account, including any interest that has accrued since you invested the principal. So, after each compounding period in which interest is earned, you will continue to earn interest on the new, larger amount (interest on top of interest), which compounds over time and enables exponential increases in earnings.
To further illustrate how compound interest works, suppose you put $1,000 principal into an account that earns 5% compound interest each year. So, one year from now, you’ll have $1,000 plus 5% of $1,000, which is $50. In total, you’ll have $1,050 after the first year.
So far, this example is identical to our simple interest scenario, but here’s where the compounding comes into play. At the end of the second year, you won’t simply earn another $50 in interest. Instead, your account will earn 5% of $1,050, which is $52.50. In total, you’ll have $1,102.50.
The table below shows how much money you’ll have after making that one-time deposit of $1000 after 10 years.
As you can see, compounding interest is a powerful tool. Your original deposit and the amount of interest grows exponentially over time as the dollar amount that constitutes 5% grows, and your rate of return is much higher.
Want to play around with your own interest calculations? Try using an interest calculator like this one from FinancialMentor.
Obviously, stashing your money in an interest-bearing account earns you more money than you would get by stuffing it in your mattress. But what can you do to maximize the magic of compound interest?
When it comes to interest, your greatest ally is time. In the example above, see how much more interest you earn if you’re willing to save for 10 years instead of just one? If you’re saving for long-term goals—like not having to work as much when you’re older—your best bet is to start saving as soon as possible. The earlier you start, the more time your money will have to grow.
If time is the most important factor in earning interest, then actual dollar bills are a close second. Simply put: the more money you save, the more interest you’ll get.
So, make saving a priority in your life, and keep it that way. Putting away a bit here and a bit there will add up over time, especially as your nest egg accumulates more interest.
The interest rate you’re getting on your savings plays a huge role in how quickly your cash will grow over time. With this in mind, it pays to make sure you’re getting the best deal before you even start.
If you’ve been with your bank for a while, do some comparison shopping. What interest rates are other banks or credit unions offering on their savings accounts? If some or all of your money is sitting in a zero-interest checking account, look for a financial institution that offers checking with interest.
If your money is invested in the market, check in regularly to see how your assets are performing, and don’t get sucked in by the promise of sky-high returns. Make sure you’re striking a balance between your money’s potential growth and your tolerance for risk.
Unfortunately, compound interest isn’t always your friend. When you have debt, compound interest works against you. Each month you carry a credit card, loan, or other unpaid balance, you’ll owe the amount you’ve charged and the unpaid interest you’ve accumulated, as well.
Your best bet is to get proactive about paying down debt faster. Pay more than your minimums and embrace a proven debt reduction strategy. Explore your options for reducing the interest rate on your debt. Jean Chatzky’s advice on negotiating with your creditors might be a good place to start. A lower rate means you’ll owe less money and get out of debt quicker.
When it comes to compound interest, there’s no financial sleight of hand. The magic happens when you make the effort to save what you can and reduce what you owe. Now that you understand what is compound interest and how it can work to grow your money, you’re on your way to taking control of your financial health.
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